Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin in 16th- and 17th-century France are major representatives of the latter technique, and Rembrandt once again utilized all its possibilities to the full.
Depth can also be portrayed by several techniques in addition to the perspective approach above. Known since Roman times, it did not come into general use until the 18th century. The brush drawing differs from the pen drawing by its greater variation in stroke width, and by the stroke itself, which sets in more smoothly and is altogether less severely bordered.
Even if certain techniques predominate in certain periods, the selection of drawing mediums depends on the intended effect and not vice versa. This can help you get a fresh perspective and notice mistakes that you might not have noticed up close.
Along with such Dutch painters as Jan van Goyen and members of the family van de Velde, Claude Lorrain achieved great mastery in this technique. A piece of chamois is useful for creating smooth textures, and for removing material to lighten the tone.
In contrast to other brown writing fluids, the more strongly coloured parts of gallnut ink remain markedly darker; and because inks of especially great vitriol content decompose Drawing paper paper, the drawing, particularly in its more coloured portions, tends to shine through on the reverse side of the sheet.
In modern drawing, the brush has regained some importance as an effective medium for contrasting planes and as carrier of the theme; in this, the dry brush has proven itself a useful tool for the creation of a granular surface structure.
The contrast to the art drawing is sharpest in the case of technical project drawings, the purpose of which is to convey not so much visual plausibility as to give exact information that makes possible the realization of an idea. This deep-black, thick fluid preserves its dark tone for a long time and can be thinned with water until it becomes a light gray.
The most significant combination from the stylistic point of view is that of pen and brush, with the pen delineating the contours that denote the object and the brush providing spatial and plastic as well as pictorial—that is, colour—values. The drawing surface To these graphic elements must be added another phenomenon the formal significance of which is restricted to drawing: Ever since the Renaissance, drawing has gradually been losing its anonymous and utilitarian status in the eyes of artists and the public, and its documents have been increasingly valued and collected.
Applied drawings Applied and technical drawings differ in principle from art drawings in that they record unequivocally an objective set of facts and on the whole disregard aesthetic considerations. With sinopia —the preliminary sketch found on a layer of its own on the wall underneath the fresco, or painting on freshly spread, moist plaster—one reaches the point at which a work that merely served as technical preparation becomes a formal drawing expressing an artistic intention.
Plane techniques Linear techniques of drawing are supplemented by plane methods, which can also be carried out with crayon. All of these effects of monochrome drawing are accentuated with the use of varicoloured mediums of a basic material; for example, coloured chalks, drawing inks, or watercolour.
This is a two-point perspective. Archival footage supplied by the Internet Moving Images Archive at archive.
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